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Metals that react with oxygen do so to form substances called oxides. The process is called oxidation.

Equation 1

Example

Equation 2

During the oxidation process the metal loses electrons and the oxygen gains electrons.

We can represent the reaction as follows:

Equation 3

This is a combination of

Equation 4

and

Equation 5

These are known as half equations.

 

Metals that react with dilute acids do so to produce hydrogen gas and a metal chloride with hydrochloric acid or a metal sulfate with sulphuric acid.

Equation 6

*We can test for hydrogen gas by holding a lighted splint to the mouth of the test tube and there will be a 'pop'.

Example:

Equation 7

During the reaction the metal loses electrons and the hydrogen ion present in the acid gains electrons.

Equation 8

The Cl- remains unchanged and is known as a spectator ion.

The overall ionic equation is:

Equation 9

 

 

 

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A Closer Look at Metals

Testing for the Chemical Properties of Metals

 

1.With Oxygen

Heating Magnesium: Magnesium is a metal which burns with a bright white flame.

Heating magnesium

 

  1. Measure the mass of the crucible and lid and magnesium.

  2. Heat with a Bunsen burner with air holes about half open.

  3. About once a minute, lift the lid of the crucible slightly and observe the magnesium.
    Lift the lid just enough to see inside the crucible. This allows you to see what is happening and also allows a little air to enter the crucible.

  4. Measure the mass of the crucible and lid and contents again.

Results

Mass before heating, m1 = ..... g

Mass after heating, m2 = ...... g

Observations

What do you see inside the crucible?
This is this substance?
What is its chemical formula?

Conclusion

Explain the difference between m1 and m2.

 

2. Reactions of metals with alkalis. (example: sodium hydroxide)

*safety classes to be worn: Acids are corrosive and alkalis irritants*

  1. Into a test tube put a small amount of aluminium powder.

  2. Add carefully 5 cm3of dilute sodium hydroxide.

  3. Record your observations, test carefully for hydrogen.

  4. Repeat the experiment for zinc, copper and iron.

Results:

Metal

Observations

Aluminium

 

Zinc

 

Copper

 

Iron

 

Questions:

  1. Which metals react with sodium hydroxide?

  2. What evidence is there of a reaction?

  3. Try and find out the name of the products produced in this reaction and hence write word and symbol equations for the reactions.

 

3. With water

Metals that react with cold water do so to form a Metal hydroxide + Hydrogen. Examples are sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium (slowly)

Metals that react with steam do so to form a metal oxide and hydrogen. Examples are zinc and iron.

Several metals do not react at all - for example copper, silver and gold

 

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