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Sodium atom

Sodium

Sodium atom loses one electron to form sodium ion with a charge of +1

Sodium ion

Sodium ion

 

 

Chlorine atom

Chlorine

gains one electron to form a ion with a charge of -1

Chlorine ion

Chloride ion

 

 

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

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Atoms and Ions

Ions

An ion is a charged ( + or - ) particle there are different types:

 

Cations and anions

Remember that atoms are electrically neutral, if an atom gains or loses electrons then it becomes charged

electron= an electron

 

If an atom loses electrons it becomes positively charged (Cation)

Example :Sodium atom has 11 electrons it loses 1 electron to form a Sodium ion which has 10 electrons.

 

If an atom gains electrons it becomes negatively charged (Anion)

Example: Chlorine atom has 17 electrons it gains 1 electron to become a Chloride ion which has 18 electrons. The number of protons positive charges does not change).

Atom: 17- 17+ so no charge

Ion: 18- 17+ so charge of 1-

 

The atom gains or loses electrons so that it has a full outer shell of electrons.

The anions and cations combine together to form an electrically neutral compound. These compounds are called ionic compounds.

equation

Sodium Chloride

Aqueous solutions of ionic compounds conduct electricity, due to the presence of the ions.

 

Polyatomic ions

These are ions that are made up of 2 or more different atoms. (Positively charged - cation, negatively charged - anion)

Examples:

Note: Images not to scale!

 

Polyatomic ion

Atoms present

Difference in electrons

Carbonate CO32-

carbonate

1 carbon

3 oxygen

2 extra

Nitrate NO3-nitrate

1 nitrogen

3 oxygen

1 extra

Sulfate SO42-

sulfate

1 sulfur

4 oxygen

2 extra

Hydroxide OH -

hydroxide

1 oxygen

1 hydrogen

1 extra

Ammonium NH4+

ammonium

1 nitrogen

4 hydrogen

1 less

 

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