ODWS icon

The Open Door Web Site
HOMEPAGE CHEMISTRY PHYSICS ELECTRONICS BIOLOGY HISTORY OF SCI & TECH MATH STUDIES LEARNING FRENCH STUDY GUIDE  PHOTO GALLERY
HISTORY HOMEPAGE LIVING HISTORY PROJECT BIOGRAPHIES EVENTS ARTICLES LESSON NOTES TIPS ON STUDYING HISTORY GLOSSARY OF TERMS

WS

Europe After Napoleon Index

Europe After Napoleon : The Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna : Outcome and Alliances
The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
Socialism
Europe After 1848
The Unification of Italy and Germany (The Breakdown in the Balance of Power)
Italy (1859-1970)
Germany (1848-1871)

History Chapters Main Index

 

Spain, Portugal and Italy

The first liberal revolution broke out in Spain in 1820. It was rapidly followed in the same year by a revolution in Portugal and in Piedmont (Italy) in 1821. What is important is that the success or failure of these liberal revolutions depended upon which of the great powers became involved. In Italy, the liberal revolts were crushed by Austria. In Spain they were crushed by France in 1822. (However, it has to be said that the France of Louis XVIII, which was a constitutional monarchy, was deeply embarrassed by this affair. So much so that, after 1822, France always took Britain's side in its relations with the absolute monarchies of Russia, Austria and Prussia, despite the Holy Alliance.)

 

Louis XVIII of France

Louis XVIII of France

 

In Portugal, by contrast, the liberal revolution succeeded and a constitutional government was created because Britain sent an army to make sure that it did so. From the very beginning the British attitude had been that no country had the right to interfere in the internal affairs of its neighbours, (which is the real reason why it refused to join the Holy Alliance), particularly if this meant revolts against absolute monarchies. When Britain did intervene, as in Portugal and in South America, it did so in order establish a regime which was favourable to British interests, which in general meant friendly republics and constitutional monarchies.

 

 

TWO CENTURIES OF REVOLUTIONARY CHANGE

Custom Search

Europe After Napoleon

Nationalist Revolutions after 1820

 

The Greek revolt against the Ottoman Turks

The Greek revolt against the Ottoman Turks was to be one of the decisive events of the history of Europe in the 19th century. Greek independence was achieved by the intervention of Russia, France and Britain, but the motives for their involvement were very different.

Britain and France had no objections to the independence of the Greeks. On the contrary, public opinion was very much in favour. Many young, idealistic Englishmen and Frenchmen, the most famous is certainly Lord Byron, actually went to fight. Both Britain and France were worried about the possible outcome because the Greek Orthodox revolt was actively supported by Orthodox Russia.

Lord Byron

Lord Byron

 

The Greeks achieved their independence in 1827 because of the intervention of Russia, France and Britain. Whereas Russia desired the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France intervened in order to make sure that that it did not collapse. If it did, then Russia would have easy access to the Mediterranean Sea from the Black Sea via the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles. For both Britain and France the Mediterranean Sea was of vital strategic importance and, after 1830, Russia was seen as the great danger to peace in Europe.

 

The Revolutions in Latin America

The revolutions in Latin America were to have very important long-term consequences. When they broke out, the member states of the Holy Alliance, led by Russia, considered it their duty to protect the " legitimate " ruler (who was God's representative), by crushing the rebellions. In 1823 three of the five members of the Quintuple Alliance, Russia, Austria and Prussia even started to plan sending a multi-national across the Atlantic to defeat the rebellions, which were led by the legendary Simon Bolivar.

 

US President Monroe

US President Monroe

 

Although France was a member of the Holy Alliance, the government o Louis XVIII was very unhappy with the idea and refused to have anything to do with it. Britain's reaction was even more hostile. Britain issued a warning that if a fleet of ships carrying an army attempted to sail from Europe to South America it would be attacked by the Royal Navy and sunk. At this point the president of the United States, James Monroe intervened to support Britain. He declared, in the famous "Monroe Doctrine" of 1823, that any interference by European powers in the affairs of the American continent would be regarded "as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition to the United States", in other words, an act of war. The expedition was abandoned.

 

The Open Door Web Site is non-profit making. Your donations help towards the cost of maintaining this free service on-line.

Donate to the Open Door Web Site using PayPal

SITE MAP
WHAT'S NEW?
ABOUT

PRIVACY

COPYRIGHT

SPONSORSHIP

DONATIONS

ADVERTISING

The Open Door Team 2017
Any questions or problems regarding this site should be addressed to the webmaster

© Shirley Burchill, Nigel Hughes, Richard Gale, Peter Price and Keith Woodall 2017

Footnote : As far as the Open Door team can ascertain the images shown on this page are in the Public Domain.

Hosted By
Web Hosting by HostCentric


SiteLock