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Europe After Napoleon Index

The Congress of Vienna : Outcome and Alliances
Revolutionary Europe 1820-1848
The Breakup of the Congress System 1818 - 1830
Nationalist Revolutions after 1820
The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
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Europe After 1848
The Unification of Italy and Germany (The Breakdown in the Balance of Power)
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Napoleon

Napoleon

 

The history of Europe after 1815 is very interesting but very complex. This section will examine the most important developments in the political history of Europe prior to 1914 outside France. It is not possible to study this period of European history without making constant reference to France, because so much of what happened in France between 1789 and 1815 had a profound and permanent effect on the history of Europe in the 19th century (and on world history in the 20th century).

 

 

TWO CENTURIES OF REVOLUTIONARY CHANGE

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Europe After Napoleon

The Congress of Vienna (1814-15)

 

Congress of Vienna

Hofburg Palace was the venue for the Congress of Vienna

 

After Napoleon's first abdication in April 1814, representatives of all the states of Europe met in Vienna in order to decide what to do now that the Napoleonic threat had disappeared. They had three priorities:

  • To reduce the size of France to its frontiers before the Revolutionary War of 1792

  • To ensure that France could never again pose a threat to the rest of Europe, especially to the east.

  • To reward those countries that had been "anti-Napoleon" and punish those that had been "pro-Napoleon".

All of the European countries and States were represented at the Congress, with the sole exception of Turkey.

The four main attendees were :

Austria

The Austrian delegation was led by Prince Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar von Metternich, a statesman and a diplomat. Metternich was also the President of the Congress.

Metternich

Prussia

Delegation led by Prince Karl August von Hardenberg, Chancellor representing King Frederick William III who was also present in Vienna,
Names of two other principal delegates were Wilhelm von Humboldt and Karl vom und zum Stein.

Hardenberg

Russia

Delegation led by the Russian Emperor Tsar Alexandre I.
Other attendees included Count Nesselrode, Count Capo d'Istria, Carlo Andreo Pozzo di Borgo.

Tsar Alexandre I

Britain

The chief delegates to the Congress were
Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, foreign minister and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, general and statesman.

Viscount Castlereagh

Duke of Wellington

The Other attendees :

France

Delegation led by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand - Périgord, French statesman and diplomat, representing King Louis XVIII.

Maurice de Talleyrand - Périgord

Spain

One of the eight signatories to the Peace of Paris. Represented at the conference by a minister, Pedro Gómez Labrador, Marquis of Labrador.

Marquis of Labrador

Portugal

The Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves was represented by four delegates, one of whom was Pedro de Sousa Holstein, Count of Palmela

Pedro de Sousa Holstein, Count of Palmela

Sweden

Sweden was represented by Count Carl Löwenhielm

Count Carl Lowenhielm

The Minor States included :

 

Bavaria
Maximilian Graf von Montgelas

Hanover
Georg Graf zu Münster

Denmark
King Frederick VI and Count Niels Rosenkrantz

House of Orange
Earl of Clancarty and Baron Hans von Gagern

The Papacy  Represented at the Congress by Cardinal Consalvi, papal legate.

Switzerland
there was one representative from each of the 26 regions. Charles Pictet de Rochemont was perhaps the most prominent.

 

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