ODWS icon

The Open Door Web Site
HOMEPAGE CHEMISTRY PHYSICS ELECTRONICS BIOLOGY HISTORY OF SCI & TECH MATH STUDIES LEARNING FRENCH STUDY GUIDE  PHOTO GALLERY
HISTORY HOMEPAGE LIVING HISTORY PROJECT BIOGRAPHIES EVENTS ARTICLES LESSON NOTES TIPS ON STUDYING HISTORY GLOSSARY OF TERMS

WS

The Shaping of Modern Europe Index

Introduction to the Reformation
The Church before the Reformation I : Indulgences, Relics and Pilgrimages
The Church before the Reformation II : The Wealth and Political Power of the Church
The Church before the Reformation III : The Clergy
The Church before the Reformation IV : Inside a Church
The Lutheran Revolt
Conflict between Luther and the Church
The Church reacts to Luther
The Catholic and the Lutheran Church
John Calvin
The English Reformation

17th Century Europe

Europe in the 1600s
17th Century Europe

History Chapters Main Index

 

 

Huldreick Zwingli

Huldreick Zwingli

Zwingli firmly believed in:

  • The direct relationship between man and God (without the need for priests).

  • The pointlessness of "good works" as the only method of salvation.

  • The return to the "basics" of the Bible.

  • His major beliefs centered around the idea that it was what was inside a person that was important - what he believed in his heart and soul - rather than what he appeared to be and did.

 

 

THE SHAPING OF MODERN EUROPE

Custom Search

Huldreick Zwingli

There is a debate over to what extent Huldreick Zwingli had his own ideas or was directly influenced by Luther. Whatever the reality, his ideas, writings and teachings had a similar effect in Switzerland.

 

Early conflict

In 1518, Zwingli became a preacher in Zurich cathedral. In his sermons he attacked all the abuses of the Church that you have already read about. He went even further by calling for the destruction of the way society was organised - the feudal system, and the Church's role in it.

He also denounced the mass, encouraged image and statue-breaking and wanted a complete break from Roman Catholic tradition.

 

Changes

From 1523 to 1525 Zwingli made several changes to the Church in Zurich:

 

  • He abolished the Mass.

  • He had services conducted in German, French or Italian.

  • He created new baptism and communion ceremonies.

  • He objected to Swiss mercenaries fighting in wars.

  • Under his direction the City Council became a "moral court".

  • All ornamentation was removed from churches.

 

Zwingli's ideas spread to other Swiss cities - Bern in 152 and Basel in 1529.

A connection between Zwingli and Luther came about, not because of religious similarities but because of the political situation. The Swiss city councils, like the German princes, became worried that the Hapsburg Emperor and the Pope would join together to crush the Reformation.

However, Luther's and Zwingli's ideas differed over the act of communion and transubstantiation. On top of this Zwingli and his followers were more "purist" than Luther, and began the ideas of "Puritanism".

 

Zwingli and Luther

A meeting was held in Hesse in 1592 between Luther and Zwingli to try to solve their differences, but it ended in argument.

It was very important, for the Swiss cities in particular, to create a friendship with the German states which had "reformed" because the majority of Swiss were Catholic and lived in the countryside - they were violently opposed to Zwingliism.

 

Zwingli's death

In 1530 - 1531 Swiss Catholics and Protestants were fighting each other. Zwingli was killed in battle at Kappel. After the Peace of Kappel (1531), Switzerland remained divided between Reformed and Catholic religions.

 

Comparing Four Reformers

Name

Desiderius Erasmus

Martin Luther

Huldreick Zwingli

John Calvin

Image

Desiderius Erasmus

Martin Luther

Huldreick Zwingli

John Calvin

Dates

1469-1536

1483-1546

1484-1531

1509-1564

Place of birth

Holland

Germany

Switzerland

France

Place of study

Sorbonne, Paris

Wittenberg University, Saxony

Vienna and Basle

Orleans and Bourges

Occupation

Augustinian friar

Augustinian friar

People's priest

Lawyer and later theology student

Lived in

Basle, Switzerland

Wittenberg, Germany

Zurich, Switzerland

Basle, Switzerland + Geneva

Important publications

"Guide to Practical Piety and Programme for Moral Reform"

"The Handbook of the Christian Soldier" (1504)

New Testament (Latin translation)

 "Ninety Five Theses" (1517)

Translated the Bible into German

 

"Institutes of the Christian Religion" (1536)

Teachings

Pointed out errors in the "official" Vulgate translation of the bible by St. Jerome.

Pointed out that even St. Jerome had stated that the Bible should be available to lay people to study.

Laid stress on the teachings of St. Paul the Apostle.

Believed in predestination (that some people are chosen to be "saved" and others are not), but people could be saved by absolute belief in God and in Christ's sacrifice on the cross.

People should accept God into themselves.

Individual relationship with God (through the written word of God - the Bible)

Taught that the bread and wine of the mass were symbols of Christ's body and blood.

Believed in the Bible as a precise authority (much more vigorously than Luther).

Denounced the use of music, pictures and sculptures in church.

Taught that the bread and wine of the mass were the real body and blood of Christ.

Believed in predestination and salvation through complete surrender to God (as did Luther).

Believed that there could only be one type of religion in any State.

Believed that the Church should govern society in daily life under a strict code of discipline and morality.

Disagreed with the pomp and ceremony of the established Church and denounced the use of any form of ornaments.

Notes

He was the first person to translate the New Testament without the censure of the Catholic church.

He never considered separating from the Catholic church.

He criticized the abuses of the Catholic church e.g. indulgences.

He demanded direct and uncensored access to the scriptures.

His teachings were against the established church because he disagreed with the pomp and ceremony.

He also disagreed with the need of the clergy as middle-men to God.

Said he was influenced by Erasmus rather than by Luther. When he met Luther, he argued with him over the meaning of Christ's words about the bread and wine during the Last Supper.

He was killed in battle against Swiss Catholics in 1531.

His ideas went further than those of Luther since he saw his religion dictating to society and believed in the formation of courts working on religious principles.

He saw the Church as a community with Christ at the head and all other members of the community as equals - the Presbyterian church.

 

The Open Door Web Site is non-profit making. Your donations help towards the cost of maintaining this free service on-line.

Donate to the Open Door Web Site using PayPal

SITE MAP
WHAT'S NEW?
ABOUT

PRIVACY

COPYRIGHT

SPONSORSHIP

DONATIONS

ADVERTISING

The Open Door Team 2017
Any questions or problems regarding this site should be addressed to the webmaster

© Shirley Burchill, Nigel Hughes, Richard Gale, Peter Price and Keith Woodall 2017

Footnote : As far as the Open Door team can ascertain the images shown on this page are in the Public Domain.

Hosted By
Web Hosting by HostCentric


SiteLock