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Tutorial Index

Introduction to Elements, Atoms, Molecules,
Compounds and Chemical Bonding

Introduction to Chemical Bonding
Metals, Non-metals and Compounds
Non-metal Radical Groups
Introduction to Chemical Reactions, the
Rules and the products of a reaction

Types of Chemical Reactions I
Types of Chemical Reactions II
Introduction to the Periodic Table
Using Chemical Formulae
Balancing Chemical Equations

The Chapters Index

 

THE LANGUAGE OF CHEMISTRY

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Acids

All acids are made from hydrogen chemically bonded to a non-metal or a non-metal radical group. The three most common acids are shown below:

 

Image

Name

Notes

hydrochloric acid

hydrochloric acid

Made from hydrogen (1 bonding arm) combined with chlorine (1 bonding arm). Ratio 1:1
This molecule can exist as a gas called hydrogen chloride. It only becomes an acid when it is dissolved in water.

nitric acid

nitric acid

Made from hydrogen (1 bonding arm) combined with a nitrate radical (1 bonding arm). Ratio 1:1

sulphuric acid

sulfuric acid

Made from hydrogen (1 bonding arm) combined with a sulfate radical (2 bonding arms). Ratio 2:1

 

Chemical Names

In most cases the name of a chemical tells you precisely which elements are present.

When non-metal atoms are combined with metals their name changes slightly in the name of the compound.

For example, calcium combined with oxygen will give calcium oxide. Whenever you come across a compound where the name finishes with -ide you know that this is, in fact, a combined non-metal atom.

 

Image

Name

sodium chloride

sodium chloride

calcium oxide

calcium oxide

iron II sulphide

iron II sulfide

 

Some chemical names are more difficult to understand. The names of these chemicals need to be learned and remembered!

 

Image

Name

Notes

ammonia gas

ammonia gas

Made from nitrogen and hydrogen (Ratio 1:3)

nitric acid

nitric acid

Hydrogen combined with a nitrate radical (Ratio 1:1)

water

water

Its correct chemical name is hydrogen oxide!

 

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