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Tutorial Index

Introduction to Elements, Atoms, Molecules,
Compounds and Chemical Bonding

Introduction to Chemical Bonding
Metals, Non-metals and Compounds
Names of Acids and other compounds
Introduction to Chemical Reactions, the Rules
and the products of a reaction

Types of Chemical Reactions I
Types of Chemical Reactions II
Introduction to the Periodic Table
Using Chemical Formulae
Balancing Chemical Equations

The Chapters Index

 

THE LANGUAGE OF CHEMISTRY

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Special non-metal groups of atoms

A few groups of non-metals exist which have bonding arms and are able to bond with metals. These are called radicals. Four of these radical groups are shown below:

 

Image

Name

hydroxide radical

hydroxide radical
(1 bonding arm)

carbonate radical

carbonate radical
(2 bonding arms)

sulphate radical

sulfate radical
(2 bonding arms)

nitrate radical

nitrate radical
(1 bonding arm)

Test Yourself
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The table below shows how these radical groups bond with metals to form compounds.

 

Image

Name

Notes

potassium hydroxide

potassium hydroxide

Both potassium and the hydroxide radical have one bonding arm each.
Ratio 1 : 1

copper II carbonate

copper II carbonate

Both copper and the the carbonate radical have two bonding arms.
Ratio 1 : 1

sodium sulphate

sodium sulfate

Sodium has one bonding arm and the sulfate radical has two.
Ratio 2 : 1

calcium nitrate

calcium nitrate

Calcium has two bonding arms and the nitrate radical has one.
Ratio 1 : 2

Exercise II
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