ODWS icon

The Open Door Web Site
HOMEPAGE BIOLOGY PHYSICS ELECTRONICS HISTORY HISTORY OF SCI & TECH MATH STUDIES LEARNING FRENCH STUDY GUIDE  PHOTO GALLERY
CHEMISTRY HOMEPAGE VISUAL CHEMISTRY PHYSICAL SCIENCE LABORATORY WORK 

 

Tutorial Index

Introduction to Chemical Bonding
Metals, Non-metals and Compounds
Non-metal Radical Groups
Names of Acids and other compounds
Introduction to Chemical Reactions, the
Rules and the products of a reaction

Types of Chemical Reactions I
Types of Chemical Reactions II
Introduction to the Periodic Table
Using Chemical Formulae
Balancing Chemical Equations

The Chapters Index

 

About this Tutorial

This tutorial is designed for the 11 years to 13 years age range. It does not distinguish between covalent and ionic (electrovalent) bonding. Instead it uses the concept of "bonding arms" to explain how molecules and compounds are formed.

The tutorial aims to explain how chemicals react with each other without giving any detail of atomic structure (dealt with in the Visual Chemistry section).

It is hoped that students will be able to transfer the skills gained from working through this tutorial to the more detailed study of chemical bonding needed at high school level.

 

 

The following table shows you the colour codes for the atoms used in the chapters:

Atom

Chemical Name

hydrogen atom

hydrogen

oxygen atom

oxygen

nitrogen atom

nitrogen

sulfur (or sulphur) atom

sulfur (sulphur)

carbon atom

carbon

chlorine atom

chlorine

sodium atom

sodium

potassium atom

potassium

iron atom

iron

copper atom

copper

calcium atom

calcium

aluminium atom

aluminium

Test Yourself
(Opens a new window)

 

THE LANGUAGE OF CHEMISTRY

Custom Search

Elements

An element, such as iron, is made of atoms. Each element has its own particular atom. An atom of one element cannot be changed into the atom of another element by any chemical process.

There are 118 different elements. In these chapters you will be using 12 of them.

 

Atoms

An atom is the smallest part of an element. It cannot be divided (broken) into anything smaller.

Atoms are very tiny. A few million atoms would be needed to cover this full stop.

In the following chapters the atoms of the elements you will be studying have been colour coded. You will notice that the atom of hydrogen is smaller than the other atoms.

 

Molecules

Most elements make chemical bonds with other atoms to form molecules. This is because most atoms are more stable as part of a molecule than they are as single atoms.

Oxygen gas and nitrogen gas, for example, contain molecules and not single atoms.

These atoms are diatomic which means they are formed from two atoms which are chemically joined together.

 

The following table shows two diatomic gases:

 

Molecule

Chemical Name

Molecule of oxygen gas

oxygen gas

Molecule of nitrogen gas

nitrogen gas

 

Other diatomic gases are hydrogen gas and chlorine gas. The atoms of these elements are shown below. How can molecules of these gases be represented?

 

Hydrogen atom

an atom of hydrogen

Chlorine atom

an atom of chlorine

 

Compounds

Most molecules contain more than one type of atom. These molecules can also be called compounds.

 

Water molecule

This is a molecule of water.

Molecule of carbon dioxide

This is a molecule of carbon dioxide.

Molecule of ammonia

This is a molecule of ammonia

 

Chemical Bonding

The way in which atoms chemically join together is very precise. The next pages of this chapter are designed as a collection of tutorials to help you to understand the basics of chemical bonding.

Each page gives an explanation and examples. There are questions and links to the answers so that you can monitor your progress. Good luck!

 

The Open Door Web Site is non-profit making. Your donations help towards the cost of maintaining this free service on-line.

Donate to the Open Door Web Site using PayPal

SITE MAP
WHAT'S NEW?
ABOUT

PRIVACY

COPYRIGHT

SPONSORSHIP

DONATIONS

ADVERTISING

© The Open Door Team 2017
Any questions or problems regarding this site should be addressed to the webmaster

© Shirley Burchill 2017

Hosted By
Web Hosting by HostCentric


SiteLock