Flowers and Reproduction
are the reproductive organs of plants. Most flowers are hermaphrodite, containing both male and female parts. Some flowers are unisexual.
♥ The male sex cells are contained in the pollen grains produced in the anthers. The female sex cells are the ovules which develop in carpels.
♥ The pollen of some flowers is
transferred by animals,
often insects, from one flower to another. These flowers are usually brightly coloured, scented and produce a sugary nectar.
♥ The wind
can also transfer pollen. Wind-pollinated flowers are inconspicuous. They are not scented and do not make nectar.
♥ To prevent self-fertilization
in hermaphrodite flowers either the male parts develop before the female parts or vice versa.
♥ Pollination is just one step towards fertilization. The male sex cell is taken to the female sex cell by a pollen tube which grows through the stigma, style and carpel.
happens when the male and female sex cells meet and fuse together.
♥ When all of the ovules have been fertilized, the carpels develop into fruits. Inside the carpels, the ovules are developing into seeds.